By R. I. G. Hughes
This quantity of modern writings, a few formerly unpublished, follows the series of a customary intermediate or upper-level good judgment path and permits lecturers to counterpoint their shows of formal tools and effects with readings on corresponding questions in philosophical good judgment.
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Extra info for A Philosophical Companion to First-Order Logic
At most three of the following eight combinations of truth-value can be ruled out a priori: Ia lb 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b A B If A, B T T T T F F F F T T F F T T F F T F T F T F T F What follows is a 'tetralemma'. I shall now show that wherever truth-functionality is assumed to fail, there are consequences incompatible with the positive thesis about the acceptance of a conditional; and that where there is a clash, intuition continues to favour the positive thesis rather than the non-truth-functional truth-conditions thesis.
In my usage no condition is placed on the method by which an utterance or inscription is produced, so that tokens of English sentences might be produced by wind in the desert or by a random word generating program. Most frequently the tokens of interest are produced intentionally by humans, but they are occasionally produced by random natural events and are more frequently produced by machines. According to my terminology the sentence tokens will be a subset of the utterances and inscriptions. Tokens are physical objects that are located (with some vagueness) in space-time.
THE CASE AGAINST TRUTH FUNCTIONALITY CONTINUED Let us continue our questionnaire to consider the second paradox of material implication: 5. The Conservative Party will win (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. If a horrendous scandal emerges involving the Prime Minister and most of the Cabinet, the Conservative Party will win (If S, C) . . Yes Yes No Such answers are not inconsistent. I grant that someone who is 100 per cent certain that the Conservatives will win will accept any conditional with an antecedent which he takes as an epistemic possibility and C as consequent.
A Philosophical Companion to First-Order Logic by R. I. G. Hughes